${session.getAttribute("locale")} 5 Defended subjectivity in service-learning:a psychosocial analysis of students’ talk about service-learning in psychology Wed 26 Oct 2022 16:01:49 SAST ]]> An evaluation of synergistic interactions between feruloyl esterases and xylanases during the hydrolysis of various pre-treated agricultural residues Wed 19 May 2021 10:55:23 SAST ]]> Industrial attachment and graduate employability in technical vocational education and training: a case of agriculture education in Zimbabwe Wed 17 Aug 2022 14:39:15 SAST ]]> An investigation of the experiences of psychotherapists regarding Ubuntu in their psychotherapy practice: an interpretative phenomenological analysis Wed 12 Oct 2022 12:44:54 SAST ]]> Biogeographic patterns of endolithic cyanobacteria and their negative impacts on mussels along the South African coast Wed 12 May 2021 23:40:00 SAST ]]> An integrative approach to understanding vulnerability of an alpine range-restricted bird to climate warming Wed 12 May 2021 23:03:20 SAST ]]> A critique of the language of record in South African courts in relation to selected university language policies Wed 12 May 2021 22:47:28 SAST ]]> A strategy towards implementing standardised data structures in municipal information systems Wed 12 May 2021 22:33:26 SAST ]]> A comparative study of conceptualisations and practices of inclusion as an aspect of social justice in three teacher education institutions in Canada, South Africa and Zimbabwe Wed 12 May 2021 21:04:16 SAST ]]> Analysing emergent time within an isolated Universe through the application of interactions in the conditional probability approach Wed 12 May 2021 20:57:26 SAST ]]> An investigation into the nature and adequacy of tax compliance tools available to assist small businesses in the state of Oklahoma in the United States of America Wed 12 May 2021 20:49:13 SAST ]]> A lean production approach to materials management in the Nigerian construction industry Wed 12 May 2021 20:27:28 SAST ]]> An exploration of how Grade 3 Foundation Phase teachers develop basic scientific process skills using an inquiry-based approach in their classrooms Wed 12 May 2021 20:04:46 SAST ]]> A novel, improved throughput bioassay for determining the delative speed of antimalarial drug action using fluorescent vitality probes Wed 12 May 2021 19:28:59 SAST ]]> A sociological understanding of contemporary child marriage in Mabvuku, Harare, Zimbabwe Wed 12 May 2021 18:26:49 SAST ]]> Biodiversity conservation and rural livelihoods across four nature reserves in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Striving towards a balance between livelihoods and conservation Wed 12 May 2021 17:51:01 SAST ]]> Addressing flux suppression, radio frequency interference, and selection of optimal solution intervals during radio interferometric calibration Wed 12 May 2021 17:37:38 SAST ]]> A transportation management framework for the Polokwane local municipality during Zion Christian Church (ZCC) Easter weekend pilgrimage Wed 12 May 2021 17:20:28 SAST ]]> Applied phylogeography : mapping the genetic resource of Honeybush across the Cape Floristic Region Wed 12 May 2021 17:18:59 SAST ]]> An evaluation of programme management with reference to inner -city problem buildings: The case of Nelson Mandela Bay Metropolitan Municipality ,South Africa Wed 12 May 2021 16:47:28 SAST ]]> An audience perception of pentecostal churches’ television programmes on star times and dstv in lagos, Nigeria Wed 12 May 2021 16:40:46 SAST ]]> A personality-based surveillance model for Facebook apps Wed 12 May 2021 16:10:18 SAST ]]> Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in South Africa: diagnosis and treatment from childhood to adulthood Wed 12 May 2021 16:01:39 SAST ]]> Attentive amelioration: developing and evaluating an applied mindfulness programme for psychologists Wed 12 May 2021 15:11:47 SAST ]]> A trait-based approach to identify indicators for measuring rocky reef ecosystem condition in South Africa Wed 12 May 2021 15:10:54 SAST ]]> In marketing, it’s either you have it or you don’t : a study of knowledge and knowers legitimated in the marketing diploma curriculum in South Africa Wed 12 May 2021 15:05:54 SAST ]]> Elucidating Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) invasion and enhancing its management in Eastern Africa : spread, socio-ecological impacts, and potential of a newly imported larval parasitoid for classical biological control Eastern in Africa Wed 12 May 2021 15:01:32 SAST ]]> A psychobiographical case study: Amelia Dyer in a search for glory Wed 12 May 2021 15:00:52 SAST ]]> The electrocatalytic response of metallophthalocyanines when clicked to electrodes and to nanomaterials Wed 12 May 2021 15:00:21 SAST ]]> A Strategic Model to Promote University of Choice Decisions among International Students Studying in South Africa Wed 12 May 2021 14:54:33 SAST ]]> Application of In Vitro Release Testing (IVRT) and a dermatopharmacokinetic approach (tape stripping) for the assessment of Metronidazole topical formulations Wed 12 May 2021 14:54:29 SAST ]]> An investigation into the mediation of the representation of gender roles in God of women : a critical discourse analysis of pedagogic practices in selected Namibian schools Wed 12 May 2021 14:51:36 SAST ]]> A gendered analysis of conditional cash based transfers: a case study of Puntland Technical Vocational Skills Training Programme, Somalia Wed 12 May 2021 14:51:15 SAST ]]> Cognitive justice and environmental learning in South African social movements Wed 12 May 2021 14:48:51 SAST ]]> An Archive of Upset : the Shift from Commissioning to Curating through South Africa’s Representations at the Bienal de São Paulo and the Interstitial Nexus of Leonard Tshehla Mohapi Matsoso Wed 12 May 2021 14:47:22 SAST ]]> The further development, application and evaluation of a sediment yield model (WQSED) for catchment management in African catchments 0.5). The model also performed generally well compared to established models that had been previously applied in some of the study catchments. The highest sediment yields recorded per country were 153 t km-2 year-1 (Tsitsa River; South Africa), 90 t km-2 year-1 (Odzi River; Zimbabwe) and 340 t km-2 year-1 (Rio Tanama; Puerto Rico). The results also displayed consistent underestimations of peak sediment yield events, partly attributed to sediment emanating from gullies that are not explicitly accounted for in the WQSED model structure. Furthermore, the calibration process revealed that the WQSED storage model is generally challenging to calibrate. An alternative simpler version of the storage model was easier to calibrate, but the model may still be challenging to apply to catchments where calibration data are not available. The additional evaluation of the WQSED simulated sediment yield rates against observed reservoir sediment rates showed a broad range of differences between the simulated and observed sediment yield rates. Differences between WQSED simulated sediment and observed reservoir sediment ranges from a low of 30% to a high of > 40 times. The large differences were partly attributed to WQSED being limited to simulating suspended sediment from sheet and rill processes, whereas reservoir sediment is generated from more sources that include bedload, channel and gully processes. Nevertheless, the model simulations replicated some of the regional sediment yield patterns and are assumed to represent sheet and rill contributions to reservoir sediment in selected catchments. The outcome of this study is an improved WQSED model that has successfully undergone preliminary testing and evaluation. Therefore, the model is sufficiently complete to be used by independent researchers and water resources managers to simulate erosion and sediment transport. However, the model is best applicable to areas where some observed data or regional information are available to calibrate the storage components and constrain model outputs. The report on potential MUSLE scale dependencies is relevant globally to all studies applying the MUSLE model and, therefore, can improve MUSLE application in future studies. The WQSED model offers a relatively simple, effective and applicable tool that is set to provide information to enhance catchment, land and water resources management in catchments of Africa.]]> Wed 12 May 2021 14:47:01 SAST ]]> A novel Arf GTPase assay for antimalarial drug discovery Wed 12 May 2021 14:46:17 SAST ]]> A comparative analysis of the use of participatory practices by indigenous trusts and mainstream development NGOs in Zvimba Communal Area Zimbabwe Wed 12 May 2021 14:45:54 SAST ]]> Chave Chemutengure Vhiri Rengoro : Husarungano Nerwendo Rwengano Dzevashona Wed 12 May 2021 14:45:08 SAST ]]> The effect of various substrate pretreatment methods on the enzymatic degradability of a Eucalyptus sp. – a potential feedstock for producing fermentable sugars Wed 12 May 2021 14:42:52 SAST ]]> Exploring Social Learning within the Context of Community-Based Farming : Implications for Farmers’ Agency and Capabilities Wed 12 May 2021 14:40:35 SAST ]]> Evaluation of water quality, selected metals and endocrine-disrupting compounds in the rivers and municipal wastewaters of Eastern Cape province, South Africa Wed 12 May 2021 14:39:44 SAST ]]> A Strategy for good IT Governance in South African Municipalities Wed 12 May 2021 14:39:39 SAST ]]> Probing the binding sites of novel 2-substituted imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acids : Towards new imidazole-based drugs Wed 12 May 2021 14:35:33 SAST ]]> The application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) to community-sport organisations in resource scarce contexts: a case study of grassroots football in Makana, Eastern Cape Wed 12 May 2021 14:30:44 SAST ]]> Evaluation of metallophthalocyanine functionalized photocatalytic asymmetric polymer membranes for pollution control and antimicrobial activity Wed 12 May 2021 14:30:41 SAST ]]> An examination of practices and experiences of teacher educators in the supervision of a national early childhood home based programme Wed 12 May 2021 14:30:28 SAST ]]> The effects of aspect, directional heating and depth on bedrock temperatures and the potential relationship with thermal fatigue weathering Wed 12 May 2021 14:24:55 SAST ]]> A housing affordability and tenure of choice quantum deliverable model in South Africa Wed 12 May 2021 14:22:52 SAST ]]> How art-as-therapy supports participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia : a phenomenological investigation Wed 12 May 2021 14:22:34 SAST ]]> A framework for the implementation of e-government as a service delivery mechanism in South Africa: The case of the Eastern Cape Thusong Service Centres Wed 12 May 2021 14:20:47 SAST ]]> An evaluation of the cytotoxic activities of novel artemisinin derivatives: towards targeted therapies for triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) Wed 12 May 2021 14:19:55 SAST ]]> Barriers to, and enablers of urban tree planting in low-cost housing areas: lessons from participatory learning processes in South Africa Wed 12 May 2021 14:19:11 SAST ]]> A framework for price tariffs in the costing structures of South African private hospitals Wed 12 May 2021 14:18:55 SAST ]]> A framework for price tariffs in the costing structures of South African private hospitals Wed 12 May 2021 14:18:06 SAST ]]> A scheduling model for the charging of electric vehicles in photovoltaic powered smart microgrids Wed 12 May 2021 14:17:26 SAST ]]> Investigating the factors that influence use of ICTs for citizen engagement in Malawi Wed 12 May 2021 14:11:52 SAST ]]> A holistic approach in understanding the effects of dietary protein sources on the growth and reproductive development of farmed abalone, Haliotis midae Wed 12 May 2021 14:11:40 SAST ]]> Prioritising biological control agents for release against Sporobolus pyramidalis and Sporobolus natalensis (Poaceae) in Australia Wed 12 May 2021 14:10:55 SAST ]]> A comprehensive approach to scalability assessment of ICTD projects : a case study of ICT4RED Wed 12 May 2021 14:09:07 SAST ]]> A Ranking Framework for Higher Education Institutions in South Africa Wed 12 May 2021 14:06:09 SAST ]]> An investigation of the link between Financial sector development and economic growth in Zimbabwe from 1980 -2016 Wed 12 May 2021 14:00:04 SAST ]]> Design patterns and software techniques for large-scale, open and reproducible data reduction Wed 12 May 2021 13:59:27 SAST ]]> “Munhu wese ihama yako (everyone is your relative)”: Ubuntu and the social inclusion of students with disabilities at South African universities Wed 12 May 2021 13:58:42 SAST ]]> Investigating grade R teacher institutional identity presented in policy and expressed through narrative in a time of transition Wed 12 May 2021 13:56:47 SAST ]]> A framework for enhancing the transgenerational potential of indigenous african family businesses Wed 12 May 2021 13:53:39 SAST ]]> Exploring learners’ proficiency in stoichiometry and attitudes towards science through Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning (POGIL) intervention Wed 12 May 2021 13:51:58 SAST ]]> Mapping the pyrroloiminoquinone diversity produced by latrunculid sponges using tandem mass spectrometry-driven molecular networking Wed 12 May 2021 13:51:34 SAST ]]> Constraining simulation uncertainties in a hydrological model of the Congo River Basin including a combined modelling approach for channel-wetland exchanges Wed 12 May 2021 13:50:47 SAST ]]> Kuntanshi yamikalile (The Future): speculative nonconformity in the works of Zambian visual artists Wed 12 May 2021 13:49:43 SAST ]]> Conceptualisations and pedagogical practices of academic literacy in Namibian higher education Wed 12 May 2021 13:48:55 SAST ]]> Accountability in the global health regime : a critical examination of the institutional policy and practice of the global fund to fight HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria partnership programme in Ghana Tue 25 May 2021 09:30:39 SAST ]]> A double-edged sword : the minimum wage and agrarian labour in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, 2003–2014 Tue 25 May 2021 08:48:47 SAST ]]> A narrative study of students’ and staff’s experiences of living with HIV and AIDS at Rhodes University Tue 23 May 2023 11:45:11 SAST ]]> A critical analysis of how the potential of Dynamic Geometry Software as a visualisation tool may enhance the teaching of Mathematics Tue 18 May 2021 15:55:51 SAST ]]> Former farm workers of foreign descent in communal areas in post-fast track Zimbabwe : the case of Shamva District Tue 16 Nov 2021 09:37:21 SAST ]]> Indigenous knowledge of ecosystem services in rural communities of the Eastern Cape, South Africa Tue 14 Feb 2023 07:55:10 SAST ]]> Coastal pH variability and the eco-physiological and behavioural response of a coastal fish species in light of future ocean acidification 10 m depth) and inshore sites (intertidal surf zones). Many sites in the bay, especially the atypical site at Cape Recife, exhibit higher than the average pH levels (>8.04), suggesting that pH variability may be biologically driven. This is further evidenced by high diurnal variability in pH (~0.55 pH units). Although the specific drivers of the high pH variability in Algoa Bay could not be identified, baseline carbonate chemistry conditions were identified, which is necessary information to design and interpret biological experiments. Long-term, continuous monitoring is required to improve understanding of the drivers of pH variability in understudied coastal regions, like Algoa Bay. A local fisheries species, D. capensis, was selected as a model species to assess the impacts of future OA scenarios in Algoa Bay. It was hypothesized that this temperate, coastally distributed species would be adapted to naturally variable pH conditions and thus show some tolerance to low pH, considering that they are exposed to minimum pH levels of 7.77 and fluctuations of up to 0.55 pH units. Laboratory perturbation experiments were used to expose early postflexion stage of D. capensis to a range of pH treatments that were selected based on the measured local variability (~8.0–7.7 pH), as well as future projected OA scenarios (7.6–7.2 pH). Physiological responses were estimated using intermittent flow respirometry by quantifying routine and active metabolic rates as well as relative aerobic scope at each pH treatment. The behavioural responses of the larvae were also assessed at each pH treatment, as activity levels, by measuring swimming distance and speed in video-recording experiments, as well as feeding rates. D. capensis had sufficient physiological capacity to maintain metabolic performance at pH levels as low as 7.27, as evidenced by no changes in any of the measured metabolic rates (routine metabolic rate, active metabolic rate, and relative aerobic scope) after exposure to the range of pH treatments (8.02–7.27). Feeding rates of D. capensis were similarly unaffected by pH treatment. However, it appears that subtle increases in activity level (measured by swimming distance and swimming speed experiments) occur with a decrease in pH. These changes in activity level were a consequence of a change in behaviour rather than metabolic constraints. This study concludes, however, that based on the parameters measured, there is no evidence for survival or fitness related consequences of near future OA on D. capensis. OA research is still in its infancy in South Africa, and the potential impacts of OA to local marine resources has not yet been considered in local policy and resource management strategies. Integrating field monitoring and laboratory perturbation experiments is emerging as best practice in OA research. This is the first known study on the temperate south coast of South Africa to quantify local pH variability and to use this information to evaluate the biological response of a local species using relevant local OA scenarios as treatment levels for current and near future conditions. Research on local conditions in situ and the potential impacts of future OA scenarios on socio-economically valuable species, following the model developed in this study, is necessary to provide national policy makers with relevant scientific data to inform climate change management policies for local resources.]]> Thu 29 Sep 2022 12:42:34 SAST ]]> A critical analysis of the de-peasantisation process in Nepal with specific reference to the role of state land policies since the 1950s Thu 13 May 2021 10:59:19 SAST ]]> A management model for human settlements: a case study of Nigeria and South Africa Thu 13 May 2021 08:54:11 SAST ]]> Assessment of the microbial quality of various domestic rainwater harvesting systems and the suitability of a nano based treatment method Thu 13 May 2021 07:39:35 SAST ]]> Application of machine learning, molecular modelling and structural data mining against antiretroviral drug resistance in HIV-1 Thu 13 May 2021 07:18:46 SAST ]]> A theory-based approach to evaluating a Continuing Teacher Professional Development Programme aimed at strengthening environment and sustainability education Thu 13 May 2021 06:21:47 SAST ]]> An analysis of how visualisation capabilities in dynamic geometric software develop meaning-making of mathematical concepts in selected Grade 11 learners Thu 13 May 2021 06:15:33 SAST ]]> A reappraisal of the origin of the Hotazel Fe-Mn Formation in an evolving early Earth system through the application of mineral-specific geochemistry, speciation techniques and stable isotope systematics Thu 13 May 2021 05:20:34 SAST ]]> A combined modelling approach for simulating channel–wetland exchanges in large African river basins Thu 13 May 2021 02:53:44 SAST ]]> A psychobiography of Viktor Emil Frankl Thu 13 May 2021 02:43:45 SAST ]]> Activity of diverse chalcones against several targets: statistical analysis of a high-throughput virtual screen of a custom chalcone library Thu 13 May 2021 02:24:07 SAST ]]> An intervention on supporting teachers’ understanding of and mediation of learning of stoichiometry in selected schools in the Zambezi Region Thu 13 May 2021 02:16:00 SAST ]]> Between nationalism and transnationalism: entanglements of history, individual narrative, and memory in diaspora spaces in selected transnational fiction Thu 13 May 2021 01:30:26 SAST ]]> A best practice guideline for screening and managing chorioamnionitis 2500g), and,therefore,most likely term gestation. Saving Babies further reported that 22.9% of all live births in South Africa was premature and 22.8% of birthswere unexplained intra-uterine deaths. Prematurity is one major complication of chorioamnionitis. When susceptibility for chorioamnionitis is considered during early pregnancy, it is possible to intervene and prevent or even reduce the incidences and complications of chorioamnionitis.A qualitative research study was conducted in three phases. In Phase One(Part One), a theoretically constructed patient scenario of chorioamnionitis was presented to ten midwives,and semi-structured individual interviews were done to elicit information regarding how they screen for and manage chorioamnionitis. In Phase One(Part Two), experienced medical practitioners in the field of obstetrics and gynaecology were individually interviewed, also using semi-structured individual interviewsto gain their views regarding chorioamnionitis as a contributing factor to maternal morbidity and mortality. Qualitative findings in Phase Oneindicated that there is a general lack of knowledge regarding chorioamnionitis among midwives, resulting ininadequate screening, misdiagnosis and mismanagement of the condition. Experienced medical practitioners confirmed that chorioamnionitis is underdiagnosed, misdiagnosed or undiagnosed and underreported,and they hold views that it is difficult to treat and control pregnancy-related infections according to current practice.An integrative literature review was conductedin Phase Twoand literature regarding diagnostic biomarkers, screening options to diagnose chorioamnionitis and management of chorioamnionitis were extracted. After evidence synthesisofPhase Oneand Phase Twodata, a best practice guidelinefor screening and managing viiwomen withchorioamnionitiswas developed usingthe National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guideline development approach in Phase Three. The purpose of the best practice guideline for screening and managing women with chorioamnionitis was to provide a guideline onhow to manage women who are at risk and those who present with signs and symptoms of chorioamnionitis at any stage during their pregnancy. Five recommendations were made that involve screening for chorioamnionitisand causative factors, biomarkers to diagnose chorioamnionitis, management of chorioamnionitis that includes pharmacological and non-pharmacological management, and health education to women.Ethics for this research study were guided by the ethical principles and guidelines of the Belmont Report. The trustworthiness of this research study was adopted from Ravitch and Carl,and was based on criticality, reflexivity, collaboration, and rigour. An independent coder and reviewer wereto verify the data that were included in the best practice guideline. Expert reviewersappraised the best practice guidelineusing Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II tools.]]> Thu 13 May 2021 01:25:46 SAST ]]> A classification of large wetlands in Africa’s elevated drylands based on their formation, structure, and hydrological functioning using Earth Observation (EO) data and Geographic Information System (GIS) Thu 13 May 2021 01:12:05 SAST ]]> Effect of adding a probiotic to an aquaponic system on plant and fish growth, water quality, and microbial diversity Sun 09 Oct 2022 18:49:45 SAST ]]> Structural determinants of the HSP90-Fibronectin interaction and implications for fibrillogenesis Sun 09 Oct 2022 18:07:39 SAST ]]> The development of an ionospheric storm-time index for the South African region 4. The modeling methods used in the study were artificial neural network (ANN), linear regression (LR) and polynomial functions. The approach taken was to first test the modeling techniques on a single station before expanding the study to cover the regional aspect. The single station modeling was developed based on ionosonde data over Grahamstown. The inputs for the model which related to seasonal variation, diurnal variation, geomagnetic activity and solar activity were considered. For the geomagnetic activity, three indices namely; the symmetric disturbance in the horizontal component of the Earth’s magnetic field (SYM − H), the Auroral Electrojet (AE) index and local geomagnetic index A, were included as inputs. The performance of a single station model revealed that, of the three geomagnetic indices, SYM − H index has the largest contribution of 41% and 54% based on ANN and LR techniques respectively. The average correlation coefficients (R) for both ANN and LR models was 0.8, when validated during the selected storms falling within the period of model development. When validated using storms that fall outside the period of model development, the model gave R values of 0.6 and 0.5 for ANN and LR respectively. In addition, the GPS total electron content (TEC) derived measurements were used to estimate foF2 data. This is because there are more GPS receivers than ionosonde locations and the utilisation of this data increases the spatial coverage of the regional model. The estimation of foF2 from GPS TEC was done at GPS-ionosonde co-locations using polynomial functions. The average R values of 0.69 and 0.65 were obtained between actual and derived _foF2 over the co-locations and other GPS stations respectively. Validation of GPS TEC derived foF2 with RO data over regions out of ionospheric pierce points coverage with respect to ionosonde locations gave R greater than 0.9 for the selected storm period of 4-8 August 2011. The regional storm-time model was then developed based on the ANN technique using the four South African ionosonde stations. The maximum and minimum R values of 0.6 and 0.5 were obtained over ionosonde and GPS locations respectively. This model forms the basis towards the regional ionospheric storm-time index.]]> Mon 31 May 2021 15:12:57 SAST ]]> The role of open government data in the repurposing of land administration in postapartheid South Africa : an exploration Mon 17 May 2021 15:55:32 SAST ]]> The impact of translanguaging and acculturation towards implementation of the Incremental Indigenous African Languages programme in former Model-C schools (Alfred Nzo West District, Eastern Cape) Mon 17 May 2021 12:32:33 SAST ]]> A mineralogical study of phosphate mineralisation in the Nkombwa Hill Carbonatite Mon 10 Oct 2022 09:43:43 SAST ]]> The Influence of Clientelism on the Informal Sector in Zimbabwe : a Case Study of Glen View 8 Complex, Harare Fri 28 May 2021 11:35:51 SAST ]]> Lipid nanocarriers : a novel approach to delivering ophthalmic clarithromycin 80%. The formulation composition identified was subsequently used for the optimization of the manufacturing parameters viz. sonication time and amplitude, using a Central Composite Design (CCD) . The LC and EE, in vitro CLA release, cytotoxicity, osmolarity, pH, degree of crystallinity and lipid modification, elemental analysis and surface morphology of the optimized batch was investigated and mon itored to ensure that CLA - loaded NLC, of the desirable quality, had been produced. On the day of manufacture the mean PS and PDI of the optimized CLA - loaded NLC formulation adjusted to physiological osmolarity (250 – 450 mOsm/kg) was 461.9 ± 40.16 nm and 0. 523 ± 0.104, respectively. The ZP for the optimized NLC generated on the day of manufacture using HPLC grade water as the dispersion medium was - 20.5 ± 4.82 mV. The pH and osmolarity of the optimized CLA - loaded NLC formulation was 7.76 ± 0.01 and 316 ± iii 2 m Osm/Kg, respectively and the EE was 88.62 ± 0.23 %. The optimized NLC exhibited a decreased crystallinity in comparison to the bulk lipid materials. DSC, WAXS and FT - IR revealed that CLA was molecularly dispersed in the nanocarriers. The optimized CLA - load ed NLC exhibited muco - adhesive properties, when tested under stationary conditions using laser doppler anemometry (LDA). The optimized formulation also exhibited sustained release of CLA over 24 hours during in vitro release testing and CLA release was bes t described using the Baker - Lonsdale model . The cumulative % CLA released over 24 hours was 56.13 ± 0.23% and mass balance analysis revealed 41.38 ± 0.02% CLA had been retained in the NLC. In vitro cytotoxicity testing revealed that the optimized CLA - NLC w ere less cytotoxic to HeLa cells when compared to CLA alone and further confirmed that the lipids and excipients used in these studies were of GRAS status . Stability studies revealed that the EE reduced over 28 days by 14.42% and 5.14% when stored at 4 °C and 22 °C , respectively. In addition, the particle size increased from the nm to μm range for samples stored at 22 °C. The findings are a good starting point but require further optimization to ensure prolongation of stability. In addition , the technology requires additional developmental studies and a powder for reconstitution for use as a single - dose considered as single dose packaging may be a solution to the compromised formulation stability observed in these studies. The CLA - NLC produced in these stu dies exhibit sound product attributes which serve as a useful foundation for the novel delivery of antibiotics to the eye. The results suggest that the optimized NLC have the potential to enhance precorneal retention and increase ocular availability of CLA , which in turn may be useful to reduce the required dose and dosing frequency when administering CLA as a reconstituted solution to treat susceptible organisms that infect ocular tissues.]]> Fri 06 Aug 2021 09:14:42 SAST ]]>